A Comprehensive electroencephalogram audit in a tertiary care center in Pakistan: demographic distribution, referral indications and findings

  • Hina Imtiaz Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
  • Ayisha Farooq Khan Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
  • Dureshahwar Kanwar Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
  • Naima Javed Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
  • Sara Khan Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi
Keywords: Electroencephalogram, encephalopathies, epilepsy, medication adjustment, seizure, temporal


Background and Objective:

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a widely employed non-invasive technique for recording brain electrical activity, pivotal for diagnosing various neurological conditions. The study aims to provide insight into demographic distribution, referral indications, and EEG findings in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.



A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted involving 2,924 patients who underwent routine EEG evaluations over a three-year period. Data was collected from the EEG records after approval from the ethical review committee.  Demographic variables, referral reasons, and EEG findings were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics.



The study revealed a gender distribution of 41.35 % females and 58.65 % males, aligning with broader epidemiological trends. Participants were categorized into different age groups and most of the patients in our study belonged to the five to 18 years of age group. Most common indication was a suspected seizure disorder (78.32 %), followed by subclinical seizures (7.38 %) and medication adjustment (6.81 %). Notably, encephalopathy was the most common abnormal EEG finding (31 %), with temporal epilepsies being predominant within the focal seizure category.



The descriptive nature of the study contributes novel insights. The study’s contribution provides valuable guidance for healthcare professionals, enhancing their comprehension of neurological conditions and refining diagnostic and treatment strategies.

Original Article